2.1: Theories of adult learning
1) Need to know: It is important for adults to know why they are learning what they are learning, why they will benefit of it and what are the risks of not learning it.
2) Self-concept: Adults are responsible for their own decisions giving them ownership of the learning deciding what and how to learn. Ideally they are self-directed which could lead to be self-managed in their learning experience
3) Grained ideas about the experiences they have can make them biased and narrow minded limiting them to have a broader view of a topic they are learning
4) Readiness to learn: Focus on what is useful in a particular context making the learning relevant and timely.
5) Orientation: Learning should be focus on tasks and problems rather than subject
6) Motivation: Is generally intrinsic in adults. They usually learn for the sake of it (I am not so sure about this)
I would like to this a different approach but not disconnected from andragogy but an evolution of it which evolves to Heutagogy ( Blaschke, L. M). Canning, (2010) explains that there are 3 levels, pedagogy which is the first level where students need to be engaged with the learning material, in the second level, andragogy learners cultivate them self through learning and knowledge and in the third level, heutagogy the learner reaches realization. It is a continuum that evolves with life.
Andragogy (Self-directed) Heutagoy (Self-determined)
Single loop learning Double loop learning
Competency development Capability development
Linear design and learning approach Non-linear design and learning approach
Instructor-learner directed Learner directed
Getting students to learn Getting students to understand how learn
(From Blaschke, L. Sustaining lifelong learning: A review of heutagogical practice and self-determined learning)
Heutagogical practice implies self-determination, self-governance. It emphasises more to prepare students for the workplace where more reflection is needed regarding what and how content is learned. Heutagogy is based on the Greek for “self” and the focus is to develop learner’s capabilities where learners are the major agents in their own learning, being the learning a consequence of personal experience (Hase and Kenyon, 2007. I have a reference list if required but I will not put all of them here for space reasons).
In the heutagogical approach the instructor facilitates the learning process by providing guidance and resources but the design of the learning path is entirely by the side of the learner.